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What’s the difference between “Comparative” and “Superlative” forms?

Hello, everyone! How are you? I hope you’re all fine! :-) Today, let’s talk about…

 

Comparative and Superlative forms

But, teacher, first of all…

 

What’s an “Adjective”?1

Um adjetivo é uma palavra que descreve algo ou alguém, atribuindo qualidades/características a estes seres. Let’s see some examples:

– I am an intelligent woman.
– Mark is a very quiet boy!
– They are old friends.

Nestes exemplos, nós utilizamos os adjetivos em sua forma natural, porque não estamos comparando estas pessoas com outras. Porém, quando queremos comparar pessoas, animais, lugares ou objetos, nós deveremos alterar estes adjetivos para uma destas duas formas, que são chamadas de: Comparative form ou Superlative form. Quer saber a diferença entre elas e como utilizá-las? Então continue lendo este artigo! J

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Comparative form

A forma “Comparativa” dos adjetivos é utilizada para comparar apenas duas pessoas, objetos, lugares, grupos ou animais. Let’s see more examples, look at the picture:

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– Ana is taller than Mark.
– Martha is younger than Beth.
– Mark is shorter than Peter.
– Beth is older than Ana.
– Peter is more romantic than Martha.

Como vocês puderam ver, os adjetivos receberam algumas alterações, e isso aconteceu porquê nós estávamos comparando as pessoas desta imagem. So let’s see the rules!

Rules: Examples:
– Short adjectives:
 

– Adj. ended with Y: -Y+IER

Pretty – prettier

Dirty – dirtier

Happy – happier

– Adj. ended with C.V.C: double the last consonant+ER Big – bigger

Hot – hotter

Fat – fatter

Other adjectives: +ER Small – smaller

Tall – taller

Loud – louder

– Long adjectives:
– Don’t change anything, just add the word “MORE” in front of the adjective: Beautiful – more beautiful

Expensive – more expensive

Interesting – more interesting

– One more question: what’s a short adjective? And what about the long adjectives?

  • Um adjetivo curto possui entre 5~6 letras ou menos;
  • Um adjetivo longo possui entre 6~7 letras ou mais.

Agora você já pode comparar o que quiser!:

– My father is angrier than my mother.

– Pizza is more delicious than beans.

– Cats are cutter than dogs.

– London is colder than Brazil.

– A Ferrari car is more expensive than a Monza.

* Something extra: Always use “THAN” after the adjectives.

 

Superlative form

Já a forma “Superlativa” dos adjetivos é utilizada para comparar um(a) pessoa, objeto, lugar, grupo ou animal com várias outras. Let’s see the same picture, but now using the “Superlative form”:

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Ana is the most beautiful woman in the picture.
– Beth is the oldest in the picture.
– Mark is the shortest in the picture.
– Peter is the youngest man in the picture.
– Martha is the most talkative person in the picture.

Nestas frases, os adjetivos também receberam algumas alterações, mas vocês podem ver que elas são diferentes: aqui, estou comparando uma pessoa com outras quatro. And to compare this way, we have other rules:

Rules: Examples:
– Short adjectives:
 

– Adj. ended with Y: -Y+IEST

Pretty – prettiest

Dirty – dirtiest

Happy – happiest

– Adj. ended with C.V.C: double the last consonant+EST Big – biggest

Hot – hottest

Fat – fattest

Other adjectives: +EST Small – smallest

Tall – tallest

Loud – loudest

– Long adjectives:
– Don’t change anything, just add the word MOST in front of the adjective: Beautiful – most beautiful

Expensive – most expensive

Interesting – most interesting

 

* The rule about long and short adjectives keeps the same.

More examples:

– Albert Einstein is one of the most intelligent men in the world.

– Banana is the cheapest fruit.

– Chemistry and Phisics are the most difficult subjects at school.

– Netherlands is the most beautiful country in the world.

– Bill Gates is the richest man in the world.

* Something extra: Always use “THE” before the adjectives.

 

Irregular adjectives

We have also some irregular adjectives (they don’t follow rules):

“Good”

“Bad”

Comp.: better Comp.: worse
Sup.: best Sup.: worst


Examples:

– Pizza is better than beans. (X not “gooder X)
– Cake is the best dessert in the world! (X not “goodest X)
– Full bus is worse than empty bus. (X not “bader X)
– “Scary movie” is the worst movie in my opinion! (X not “badest X)

 

Let’s practice Comparative and Superlative forms

Now you know the differences about these “Comparisons of adjectives”! But let’s remember one more time: We use the Comparative form to compare 2 people or things; and we use the Superlative form to compare a lot of people or things! Have you got it? Let’s practice! :-)

 

Exercise – Choose the best alternative to complete the sentences:

1) Albert Einstein is _____________ than Tiririca.
a) intelligenter
b) intelligent more
c) more intelligent
d) more intelligenter
2) Chocolate ice cream is ________ than apple pie.
a) better
b) best
c) gooder
d) worst
3) I have the __________ mother in the world! J
a) better
b) best
c) gooder
d) goodest
4) My brother is ________ than my sister.

a) tallest
b) more tall
c) taller
d) tallest

5) The Everest Mountain is the _________ mountain in the world.
a) highest
b) higher
c) most high
d) more high
6) Dubai is the _______ city in the world.
a) richer
b) most rich
c) better
d) richest

——————————————————————————————

 

Answer key:  1) C    /    2) A    /    3) B    /    4) C    /    5) A    /     6) D

That’s all for today. Thanks for reading!! See you soon! :-)


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Olá!!! Meu nome é Daniela Vieira Passos, eu estou com 19 anos de idade, moro em São Paulo – SP e trabalho como instrutora de Inglês na escola Evolutime – Taboão da Serra desde 2014.

 

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